Citations in Text (One Author)

Use the author-date method

Cite the last name (do not include suffixes such as Jr., or academic titles, or initials of first names) and the year of the publication inserted in the text at the appropriate point.


Morse (2001) studied 40 women and found that Ménière's responses varied with menstrual cycle phases.

In a recent study of 40 women Ménière's responses were noted to vary with menstrual cycle phases (Morse, 2001).

If the author’s name is part of the narrative (Example #1), cite only the year of publication in parentheses. Otherwise, put both the name/year, separated by comma, in parentheses (Example #2).


Citations of 2-5 Authors

With two authors, always cite both names every times the reference occurs in text.

With three, four, or five authors, cite all authors, the first time and in subsequent citations, include only the first author followed by et al. (not italicized and with a period after “al”)


Morse, House, and Jones (2001) found (first use of citation)

Morse et al. (2001) found (subsequent citation, used throughout the remainder of the paper)

Morse et al. found (omit year for subsequent citations following the first citation in the same paragraph)

Citation of 6 or More Authors

When a work has six or more authors, cite only the last name of the first author followed by et al. and the year for the first and subsequent citations.

In the reference list, provide the last names and initials of the first name of the first six authors followed by et al. for any remaining authors.

In-text citation:
  (Manson, et al., 2006)
Manson, J., Bassuk, S., Harman, S., Brinton, E., Cedars, M., Lobo, R. (2006). Postmenopausal hormone:
  New questions and the case for new clinical trials. Menopause, 13(1), 139-147.


Ciitation of Groups

Names of groups that serve as authors (government agencies, corporations) are spelled out the first time they appear in text.


In the references, the entry would be:
National Institute of Nursing Research. (2006).

First citation in text, the entry would be:
(National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR], 2006)

Subsequent text citations would be:
(NINR, 2006)

Citation of Works With No Author

When no author is available, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. Use double quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter, and italicize the title of a book, periodical, brochure, or report.


on health reform (“Study Finds,” 2008)

the book Politics and nurses (2008)

If the author is designated as “anonymous,” cite in text the word Anonymous, followed by a comma and the date.


(Anonymous, 2007)

Subsequent Citations from the Same Author (Same Paragraph)

Within the same paragraph, you do not need to include the year in subsequent references.


In a recent study of 40 women, Morse (2001) reported that Ménière's responses were noted to vary with menstrual cycle phases. Morse suggests that these changes may be related to neuroendocrine events.

Citation of Two or More Works Within the Same Parentheses

Sentences in scholarly papers often provide reference to more than one source. List two or more sources by different authors that are cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical order by the first author’s last name. Separate the citation with semicolons.


Several studies (Jones, 2000; Morse, 2001; Smith & Johnson, 2005)….